Internet of Things (IoT)
IoT, Cloud Computing
The importance of preventing intrahospital infections is recognized both worldwide and in Romania. The World Health Organization (WHO) has active concerns in the field by publishing the Guidelines for the Prevention of Nosocomial Infections.
The prevention of single cases of intrahospital infection, as well as to limit the effects and spread of epidemics of intrahospital infections, can be achieved by using visualizations and reports that facilitate the work of epidemiologists in identifying patient zero and the means of spread.
The proposed cyber-physical system consists of a network of wireless sensors capable of real-time monitoring of the clinical environment, the presence of people in a room as well as the detection of their actions. The aim is to target the most common sources of infection as well as the most common ways of their transmission, known from the specialized literature.
The system will monitor several clinical scenarios that are known to play a role in the transmission of nosocomial infections, based on a rules engine with the help of which it will be possible to define the hygiene rules that want to be monitored and respected:
- During a consultation with the attending physician, he must perform hand hygiene before consulting the patient;
- During a pre- or post-operative consultation, the doctor will perform hand hygiene using antibacterial gel, will use disposable gloves that will be thrown away at the end of the consultation;
- Before and after any medical procedure, the nurse will perform hand hygiene;
- Visitors must use disposable slippers and gowns. Before entering the salon, hands must be washed with disinfectant gel;
- The evaluation of the microbiological load on the surfaces will be done according to a predetermined schedule by an epidemiologist.
The system is flexible and allows its implementation in clinical units with different requirements, as well as the customization of the monitored flows for each individual location.
The system includes the following components:
- A hardware network of equipment equipped with the sensors necessary to detect the presence of people in a room as well as the detection of certain well-defined events (eg: use of a trash can, turning on/off the faucet, use of equipment, etc.);
- A software utility that allows defining and configuring the rules to be monitored.
- A business rules software engine that will follow the rules defined at the level of the clinical unit and that will trigger alerts in real time if the risk of an infection is detected;
- The software components needed to build and visualize contact networks and risk maps, built based on data received from the wireless sensor network.
Awareness raising – IoT
Home autonomy assistance enables remote control of the home, along with ensuring independent living for elderly and/or chronically ill people. ICT solutions for assisted living are particularly relevant in the context of a European society in an accelerated aging process: it is estimated that by 2060, one in three Europeans will be over 65 years old, and the ratio of people active in the labor field and the inactive ones will evolve from the current 4:1 to 2:1.
Remote monitoring (at the patient’s home) of vital parameters (heart rate and rhythm, blood sugar, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, etc.), environmental variables (domotics) will allow doctors to identify changes in the patient’s condition as soon as they occur , so that timely intervention can be made if necessary. The patient can also be in continuous contact via a tablet or smartphone with the healthcare team that monitors his condition.
Once the acute event has passed, the monitoring system can be returned and redeployed for a new patient. Or, if the patient has a chronic condition, they continue to wear the device and maintain their regular monitoring.
Such a system diversifies the services offered by a home care company and will play an increasingly important role in the healthcare structure.
Development of Medical Devices
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